EQUILibre - Sans fers Sans mors

Article Magazine Planète Cheval au Naturel N° 15 -Pierre ENOFF-

En observant ce qui se passe dans le monde du cheval, nous sommes contraints de constater que le cheval dit « de loisir » a beaucoup de mal à vivre correctement. De mauvaises fréquentations lui portent tort et mettent en péril sa santé mentale et physique et réduisent son espérance de vie. L’homme est le seul « prédateur » du cheval domestique. Il en mange quelques- uns et, par tradition ou par ignorance, en fait souffrir et mourir beaucoup trop d’autres.

Quelle est l’espérance de vie d’un cheval ?

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L’espérance de vie est la durée moyenne de vie. C’est donc un calcul qui permet de la définir. Cette analyse fluctue suivant le milieu. Ainsi, l’espérance de vie d’un cheval de course est plus réduite que celle d’un cheval libre passant le plus clair de son temps dans son pâturage. Diverses études portent à moins de 15 ans l’espérance de vie du cheval domestique. Les compagnies d’assurance établissent le chiffre à moins de 10 ans. D’ailleurs, pour le risque « mortalité », elles prennent des garanties vétérinaires draconiennes au delà de 10 ans et refusent d’assurer un cheval dépassant 15 ans. Faisons confiance au pragmatisme des assureurs. Pour eux pas d’angélisme. Si c’est avec grande prudence qu’ils assurent au delà de 10 ans, c’est que les chevaux ont de grands risques de mourir passé cet âge. Le réalisme financier, avec ses quotas et ses moyennes, nous ramène à la réalité de l’espérance de vie. La longévité, c’est ce que biologiquement la nature nous offre. L’homme bénéficie d’une longévité établie à 116 ans mais son espérance de vie est de 42 ans en Afrique alors qu’elle se situe autour de 80 ans en Europe occidentale.

 

En 1993, Bobick, J.E. et M. Peffer fixent la longévité de equus caballus à 62 ans en liberté et à 50 ans en « captivité ». Cette analyse rejoint la thèse concernant la longévité des mammifères. Le plus petit d’entre eux est la musaraigne et le plus gros la baleine bleue. Pourquoi s’intéresser à ces deux extrêmes ? Il se trouve que la fréquence cardiaque de repos – FCR - détermine la longévité chez les mammifères. Plus la fréquence cardiaque est élevée, plus la longévité est courte. Plus le cœur – la pompe - est petit, plus il doit « tourner » vite. Le rythme cardiaque est inversement proportionnel à la longévité. Les petits mammifères vivent biologiquement moins longtemps que les grands. Le nombre moyen de battements cardiaques au cours d’une vie est constant chez tous les mammifères. L’ordre de grandeur est de 9 x 108 battements cardiaques par vie. En lien direct avec cette observation : la consommation d’énergie basale par battement de cœur et par unité de masse corporelle est identique pour tous les mammifères. En plus clair, le rythme cardiaque est directement lié à la quantité d’oxygène que l’organisme consomme. Cette consommation d’oxygène dépend de plusieurs facteurs – notamment l’activité physique et la température ambiante. Plus le corps est petit, plus, relativement, il a besoin d’énergie pour maintenir le minimum d’activité physique et la température nécessaires à la vie. Rythme cardiaque et rythme respiratoire sont liés. Ainsi au cours de leur vie, les mammifères, quelle que soit leur taille, respirent 200 millions de fois, soit environ un cycle inspiration-expiration tous les 4 à 4,5 battements du cœur.

musareigne

Musaraigne

  • Masse corporelle 2 g
  • Masse cardiaque 12 mg
  • Fréquence cardiaque 1000 bpm
  • Longévité 1 an.

 

 

Chevaux-kabardines
Cheval domestique
  • Masse corporelle 450 kg
  • Masse cardiaque 5 kg
  • Fréquence cardiaque 40 bpm
  • Longévité 50 ans

 

 

 

baleine

Baleine bleue
  • Masse corporelle 100 000 kg
  • Masse cardiaque 600 kg
  • Fréquence cardiaque 6 bpm
  • Longévité 120 ans

 

 

 

 

Visionnez la vidéo, "bref j'ai ferré mon cheval", une expérience malheureusement vécu par nombre de propriétaires de chevaux. Cliquez ici

 

 

 

 

source : equilibre, équilibre, stage, parage naturel, naviculaire longévité  longevite longévite longévite esperance de vie espérance de vie fourbure cheval, pieds nus, pyrénées, france, randonnées, equestres, hebergement, gite, cardiaque, fréquence, frequence cardiaque

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